|General Norms » Singular Administrative Acts » Common Norms|
|Canon 35.||A singular administrative act, whether it is a decree, a precept, or a rescript, can be issued by one who possesses executive power within the limits of that person’s competence, without prejudice to the prescript of can. 76, §1.|
|Canon 36.||§1. An administrative act must be understood according to the proper meaning of the words and the common manner of speaking. In a case of doubt, those which refer to litigation, pertain to threatening or inflicting penalties, restrict the rights of a person, injure the acquired rights of others, or are contrary to a law which benefits private persons are subject to a strict interpretation; all others are subject to a broad interpretation.
§2. An administrative act must not be extended to other cases besides those expressed.
|Canon 37.||An administrative act which regards the external forum must be put in writing.
Furthermore, if it is given in commissariat form, the act of its execution must be put in writing.
|Canon 38.||An administrative act, even if it is a rescript given motu proprio, lacks effect insofar as it injures the acquired right of another or is contrary to a law or approved custom, unless the competent authority has expressly added a derogating clause.|
|Canon 39.||Conditions in an administrative act are considered added for validity only when they are expressed by the particles if (*si*), unless (*nisi*), or provided that (*dummodo*).|
|Canon 40.||The executor of any administrative act invalidly carries out his or her function before receiving the relevant letter and verifying its authenticity and integrity, unless previous notice of the letter had been communicated to the executor by authority of the one who issued the act.|
|Canon 41.||The executor of an administrative act to whom is entrusted merely the task of execution cannot refuse the execution of this act unless it clearly appears that the act itself is null or cannot be upheld for another grave cause, or the conditions attached to the administrative act itself have not been fulfilled. Nevertheless, if the execution of the administrative act seems inopportune due to the circumstances of person or place, the executor is to suspend the execution. In such cases the executor is to inform immediately the authority who issued the act.|
|Canon 42.||The executor of an administrative act must proceed according to the norm of the mandate. If, however, the executor did not fulfill the essential conditions attached to the relevant letter and did not observe the substantial form of proceeding, the execution is invalid.|
|Canon 43.||The executor of an administrative act can, according to his or her prudent judgment, substitute another as executor unless substitution has been forbidden, the executor has been chosen for personal qualifications, or a substitute has been predetermined. In these cases, however, the executor may entrust the preparatory acts to another.|
|Canon 44.||The executor’s successor in office can also execute an administrative act unless the executor was chosen for personal qualifications.|
|Canon 45.||If the executor has erred in any way in the execution of an administrative act, the executor is permitted to execute the same act again.|
|Canon 46.||An administrative act does not cease when the authority of the one who established it expires unless the law expressly provides otherwise.|
|Canon 47.||The revocation of an administrative act by another administrative act of a competent authority takes effect only from the moment at which the revocation is legitimately made known to the person for whom it has been given.|
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