|Sanctions in the Church » Delicts and Penalties in General » Penal Law and Penal Precept|
|§1. A person who has legislative power can also issue penal laws; within the limits of his competence by reason of territory or of persons, moreover, he can by his own laws also strengthen with an appropriate penalty a divine law or an ecclesiastical law issued by a higher authority.
§2. The law itself can determine a penalty, or its determination can be left to the prudent appraisal of a judge.
§3. Particular law also can add other penalties to those established by universal law for some delict; however, this is not to be done except for very grave necessity. If universal law threatens an indeterminate or facultative penalty, particular law can also establish a determinate or obligatory one in its place.
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